Nano-physics

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The nanophysics is halfway between the size scales of quantum mechanics and macroscopic physics governed by the laws of Newton and Einstein. The correct definition of nanophysics is the physics of structures and artefacts with dimensions in the nanometer range or of phenomena occurring in nanoseconds.
In other hand, Nano physics is physics which applied at nanometer range. In nano range properties of materials changed. Basically at nanorange the surface properties of materials start dominating compare to bulk properties. In surface there are dangling bond which have high surface energy compared to bulk.

Modern physical methods whose fundamental are developed in physics laboratories have become critically important in nanoscience. Nanophysics brings together multiple disciplines, using theoretical and experimental methods to determine the physical properties of materials in the nanoscale size range. Interesting properties include the structural, electronic, optical, and thermal behavior of nanomaterials; electrical and thermal conductivity; the forces between nanoscale objects; and the transition between classical and quantum behavior. Nanophysics has now become an independent branch of physics, simultaneously expanding into many new areas and playing a vital role in fields that were once the domain of engineering, chemical, or life sciences.

1.What is nanotechnology?

The ideas and concepts behind nano science and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules.

Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn’t until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could “see” individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

Nanotechnology (“nanotech”) is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.

This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold.

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